Periodontal disease is the leading cause of bone loss in the oral cavity, though there are others such as ill-fitting dentures and facial trauma. Bone grafting procedures are an excellent way to replace lost bone tissue and encourage natural bone growth. Bone grafting is a versatile and predictable procedure which fulfills a wide variety of functions.
A bone graft may be required to create a stable base for dental implant placement, to halt the progression of gum disease or to make the smile appear more aesthetically pleasing.
There are several types of dental bone graft materials. The following are the most common:
Autogenous bone – This is the patients own bone that is removed from a donor site. Common donor sites for bone grafting include the the chin and the posterior third molar areas of the jaw.
Allograft – This is bone from another human donor source; usually in the form calcified or decalcified freeze dried bone. Allograft material has been used
for more than 30 years in periodontal therapy and there are
no reports of disease transmission during the 30-year history.
Xenograft – This is bone from a non-human species; most often bovine (cow) bone. Only the highly calcified portion of the bone is used.
- Synthetic -Several man made materials are available that closely mimic the calcified portion of our bone.
Bone Graft Are Used For:
Dental implants – Implants are the preferred replacement method for missing teeth because they restore full functionality to the mouth; however, implants need to be firmly anchored to the jawbone to be effective. If the jawbone lacks the necessary quality or quantity of bone, bone grafting can strengthen and thicken the implant site.
Sinus lift – When the maxillary sinuses are too low to allow for implant placement, a sinus lift will be used to elevate the sinus membrane and graft bone onto the sinus floor so that implants can be securely placed. This has been a very safe and effective procedure.
Ridge augmentation – Defects in the dental bony ridge (the bone with missing teeth) can occur due to trauma, injury, birth defects or severe periodontal disease. Ridge augmentation is a grafting procedure to build back the bony ridge for implant placement or improved esthetics.
Extraction socket healing - An appropriate graft material is usually placed at the time of tooth extraction in order to promote healing and minimize the bone from shrinking during the healing process.
The bone regeneration process may be aided by:
Guided tissue regeneration – A thin barrier (membrane) is placed below the gum line over the grafting material. This barrier creates enough space for healthy tissue to grow and separates the faster growing gum tissue from the slower growing bone. This means that bone cells can migrate to the protected area and grow naturally.
Tissue stimulating proteins – Enamel matrix proteins occur during natural tooth development. Emdogain is a matrix protein product which is usually placed on the affected site before the gum is sutured. It mediates the formation of accellular cementum on the tooth which provides a foundation to allow periodontal attachment to occur. Tissue stimulating proteins help to create lost support in areas affected by periodontal defects.
Platelet-rich growth factors –A high platelet concentration that is obtained from blood that is drawn from the patient at the time of the graft procedure. PRGF stimulates bone growth – meaning a denser graft in a shorter time period.
If you have any questions about bone grafting, please feel free to call the office.
Jenkintown Periodontics & Dental Implants, LLC
Neal B. Suway, DDS - Juan Carlos Cabrera, DMD, MS
Dental Implants, Cosmetic and Laser Periodontics
261 Old York Road Suite 319
Jenkintown, PA 19046
Phone: (215) 887-6060
Convenient to Philadelphia, Abington, Willow Grove, Elkins Park, Cheltenham, Horsham, Warminster, and Hatboro